ROS in IVF or artificial insemination

ROS in IVF or artificial insemination 

My memories
ROS in IVF or artificial insemination
Posted in 2013

New studies are underway to find new methods for supporting longer storage of cooled animal semen. All aerobic organisms require oxygen for life; although it is an essential element, oxygen is responsible for ROS production. It is known that high concentrations of ROS cause sperm pathology. Low concentrations of ROS play an important role in sperm physiology, while higher concentrations are detrimental. A study showed the influence of ROS on capacitation and the acrosome reaction in frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa; they concluded that ROS is required in the capacitation process and that hydrogen peroxide may participate as an inducer of the acrosome reaction.
ROS act as second messengers and are involved in the sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and oocyte fertilization. They regulate the increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA) activation, and phosphorylation of PKA substrates (arginine-X-X-(serine/threonine) motif), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) proteins and threonine-glutamate-tyrosine motif, and tyrosine phosphorylation of fibrous sheath proteins . When ROS increase, the endogenous antioxidant defenses of gametes decrease and oxidative stress is induced . High concentrations of ROS induce changes in sperm cell functions, altering fluidity and integrity of sperm membranes due to lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, ROS can damage DNA in the sperm nucleus, deplete ATP in mitochondria, and cause loss of sperm motility, viability, and capacity for fertilization . Oxidative stress may be a cause of male infertility and contribute to DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. There are few studies on the effects of antioxidant addition to extenders during cooling and/or freezing mammalian spermatozoa. Spermatozoa are subjected to peroxidative damage due to an excess of ROS because of the high presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. The antioxidant systems control the balance between production and neutralization of ROS and protect spermatozoa against peroxidative damage. Recent studies moreover show a physiological SOD activity in human seminal plasma . SOD is an important antioxidant defense in all cells exposed to oxygen. Their use as additives in semen extenders has had controversial effects. SOD is responsible for H2O2and O2 production, by dismutation of superoxide radicals. The addition of SOD to semen improves the quality of semen and reduces ERK activation. The addition of SOD to the semen extender could prolong storage of stallion semen, allowing longer distance shipments and a more precise timing of insemination, increasing the high rates of fertility. Furthermore, the antioxidant addition might also bring benefits to spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract . ROS are responsible for the deterioration in quality of semen stored at 5°C, and the addition of SOD to the semen extender improves the quality of cold-stored semen.
Another work evaluated the effect of SOD supplementation in ovary transport media during 4°C storage of cat ovaries at different time intervals on the occurrence of ovarian apoptosis and on the ability to undergo in vitro oocyte development. The authors by immunohistochemical analysis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and viability test analysis have demonstrated that SOD supplementation in transport media of domestic cat ovaries reduces cellular apoptosis and enhances COC survival and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) 

My advise
1...   IVF is an artificial insemination
2....  IVF is done when there is block in uterus to flow semen

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